明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年01月17日 20:34:50
As housing prices rise in Australia, pushing middle-class buyers to the margins of the market, local politicians and media are finding a scapegoat in wealthy Chinese.随着澳大利亚房价上涨、中产购房者被推到房地产市场边缘,该国政界和媒体正在寻找中国富人阶层炒高澳大利亚房价的据。The Australian Parliament#39;s House Economics Committee will investigate whether foreign investment into property in the country is driving up prices and making housing unaffordable for its middle class, Liberal MP Kelly O#39;Dwyer, the committee#39;s chairwoman, said in an interview with A radio on Monday.澳大利亚众议院经济委员会(Economics Committee)主席、自由党议员奥德怀尔(Kelly O#39;Dwyer)周一接受美国广播公司(American Broadcasting Company, 简称:A)采访时表示,该委员会将着手调查外国人在国内房地产市场的投资是否导致了国内房价上升、使中产购房者买不起房。The remarks came after a government report published last month found that Chinese investors spent almost 6 billion Australian dollars (US.4 billion) on real estate during the 12-month period ending in June 2013. An HS report published in February named Australia as China#39;s No. 1 destination for overseas property. More recently, Credit Suisse released a report that forecasts a flood of Chinese investment -- to the tune of A billion -- to awash Australia#39;s shores over the next seven years.上个月公布的政府报告显示,在截至2013年6月份的12个月里,中国投资者花了将近60亿澳元(合54亿美元)购买澳大利亚房产。汇丰(HS) 2月份发布的一篇报告称,澳大利亚是中国人最大的海外房地产投资目标。最近瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)发布的一篇报告预计,未来七年中国涌入澳大利亚的投资总计将达到440亿澳元。Chinese investment in Australian real estate has become a touchy subject. The Australian government reports that Chinese money accounts for 12% of the purchases of newly built residences there, with the majority being snapped up in Sydney and Melbourne. Some apartment blocks in those cities are 100% owned by Chinese nationals, A says.中国对澳大利亚房地产的投资已成为一个敏感话题。澳大利亚政府公布,澳大利亚新建住宅有12%都被中国买家买走,他们所抢购的主要是悉尼和墨尔本的房产。这些城市的一些住宅区块业主100%是中国人。Commentators like Paul Sheehan at the Sydney Morning Herald are sounding the alarm, writing that Australian homebuyers are caught #39;in a pincer movement between superannuation and Chinese investment.#39;包括《悉尼先驱晨报》(Sydney Morning Herald)希恩(Paul Sheehan)在内的员已拉响了警报,指出澳大利亚购房者在养老金计划与中国投资潮之间腹背受敌。But while the investment growth is impressive, Chinese money comprises less than one-sixth of the A.5 billion in foreign investment in Australian real estate -- a sum that actually dropped in the 2013 fiscal year from the previous year, according to the Foreign Investment Review Board, a government agency. (U.S. and Canadian investors poured A.4 billion and A.9 billion, respectively, last year.) Australia also limits foreign buyers to only newly built houses, meaning many Chinese buys are of condominium apartments that have yet to be constructed.不过,根据澳大利亚政府机构外商投资审核委员(Foreign Investment Review Board)的数据,虽然中国人在澳投资房地产的增速很快,但在375亿澳元的澳大利亚房地产外资投资总额中的占比不到六分之一,2013财年的澳大利亚房地产外资投资总额实际上较上年有所下降。(去年美国和加拿大投资者分别投资44亿澳元和49亿澳元。)另外,外国购房者在澳大利亚只能购买新建住宅,这意味着很多中国人所购买的是尚未建成的公寓。Ms. O#39;Dwyer said one of her main worries is Chinese investors#39; habit for parking money in Australian real estate with no intention to actually live there or rent out the property.奥德怀尔说,她最担心的一个问题是中国投资者并不打算真正居住或出租,只是想把钱放在澳大利亚的房地产市场。#39;I think what there#39;s concern about is whether or not apartments are being occupied,#39; she said in the radio interview. #39;So whether or not it#39;s fulfilling the original mandate to provide additional dwellings that can be purchased, in the end, by other Australian investors and home owners.#39;她在接受电台采访时表示,她认为令人担心的问题是住宅楼是否会被空置;政府是否能履行最初的使命,最终向澳大利亚其他投资者和房主提供可以购买的住宅。Opposition leader Bill Shorten told Australian media he welcomed the inquiry.反对党领袖Bill Shorten对澳大利亚媒体表示,他欢迎政府的这种调查。#39;On something as hot button as housing we need to make sure that...the price is not being forced up for purely just investment reasons and, rather, there should be some priority given to making sure that the middle class of Australia can be able to afford to enter the housing market.#39;他说,对于像房地产这种敏感问题,我们需要切实保,房价不会单纯地被投资因素推高。另外,政府应当优先保澳大利亚中产购房者不会买不起房。 /201403/280864

Wal-Mart, the world’s biggest retailer, is y to put more money toward ensuring food safety in China.世界最大的零售商沃尔玛(Wal-Mart)准备投入更多资金确保在中国的食品安全。The superstore will increase its spending 300 million yuan (.32 million) over 2013, 2014 and 2015 to ensure it is meeting food standards in the Asian nation. That’s three-times the previously planned 100 million yuan over the same period, Reuters reported.这家超市运营商将其在2013年、2014年和2015年的中国食品安全出增至3亿元人民币(4,832万美元),以确保达到这个中国的食品标准。路透社(Reuters)报道称,这个金额是同期先前计划投入金额1亿元的3倍。Wal-Mart WMT -0.46% also plans to do more DNA testing on meat products and supplier inspections, as well as test more of its Chinese stores using two mobile safety labs.沃尔玛还计划对肉类产品进行更多DNA检测和供应商检查,同时利用旗下的两个移动安全实验室检测更多的中国门店。China’s food and grocery market is expected to expand to .5 trillion by 2016, and Wal-Mart’s food safety reputation has become a concern in this important market after two recent incidents.中国的食品和杂货市场价值预计到2016年将增至1.5 万亿美元。中国是沃尔玛的重要市场,经过最近这两次风波之后,沃尔玛的食品安全声誉已经引起市场关注。Earlier this year, the retailer’s “Five Spice” donkey meat was found to have fox meat, and in 2011, it was fined for selling expired duck meat.今年早些时候,这家零售商出售的“五香驴肉”被发现含有狐狸肉成份;而在2011年,它还曾经因为出售过期鸭肉产品而遭到过处罚。A Wal-Mart spokesperson was not immediately available for comment.沃尔玛的发言人没有立即发表。 /201406/307072

I am starting to think marketers and astrologers have more in common than meets the eye. We are both asked to stargaze and look into the future on a regular basis. Every year around this time, I see similar emails from clients and reporters alike, all wanting to know what 2014 holds in store. Luckily, I don’t need the stars to predict what comes next because technology always leaves telltale signs. Here are the Top 5 Digital Trends you can look forward to for 2014.我开始思考这样一个问题:营销人员和占星家之间的共同点比表面上看起来的要多。这两种人都会要求我们经常性地凝望星空、望向未来。每年的这个时候,我都会收到客户和记者发来的类似邮件,他们都想知道2014年会发生些什么。幸运的是,我并不需要夜观星象来预测接下来会发生的事,因为科技总是会留下一些明显的迹象。以下便是2014年你将可能发现的五大数字趋势。1) An Identity Based Eco-System. As a graduate student at the University of Texas at Austin, I did my thesis on Twitter. (No, it wasn’t in 140 characters.) One of the pivotal questions of my thesis was this: Why do people use social networking sites at all? My incorrect hypothesis was that people wanted to connect to each other. My research revealed that this was only the secondary reason. The primary reason was to showcase their own identity. I’ll pause while you give a moment’s thought to the narcissism of society. Then, I’ll urge you to think deeper. We, as humans, have always had an innate need to express ourselves. By that very expression, we further our identity. Smart companies, such as Facebook (with their timeline feature) and Amazon (with their personalized recommendations) are aly taking advantage of what I refer to as an Identity Based Eco-System. The digital world of tomorrow, be it consumer or business, will revolve around the individual identity. The companies who want to take advantageof this trend will proactively create ways to harness the idea that showcasing our identity is the most human and primary of desires.1)基于身份的生态系统。在我还是得克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校研究生的时候,我的论文主题是Twitter(不,这篇论文并非只有140个字)。我论文中讨论的一个重要问题是:为什么人们会使用社交网站?我不甚正确的假设是,人们想要彼此进行联系。但我所做的调研发现,这仅仅是第二重要的原因。第一重要的原因是展示自己的身份。我会在这里顿一顿,给你点时间思考下这个社会的自恋情结。然后,我会敦促你更深入地思考。作为人类的我们总有一种天生的表达自己的需求。通过这种表达,我们进一步深化了自己的身份。聪明的公司,如Facebook(以及他们的时间轴功能)和亚马逊(以及他们的个性化推荐功能)已经在着手利用我所说的这种“基于身份的生态系统”。明天的数字世界,无论是消费者的还是企业的,都将围绕着个人身份展开活动。想要利用这一趋势的公司将会积极主动地创造各种方法,来利用这一观点:展示我们的身份是最最普遍也是最最基础的欲望。2) Content Curation and Aggregation. Remember the movie You’ve Got Mail, with Meg Ryan and Tom Hanks? It was a blockbuster hit and romantic comedy at its best. But, they can never create a remake of that movie. Why? Because no one is that excited to receive email anymore! We have gone from an information hungry to an information overloaded society. However, we still require information on a daily basis – now more than ever. Hence, we see the rise of websites such as Pinterest, Quora, and List.ly. Pinterest is technically nothing more than an organization system for images which aly exist, but because we desperately need that system for aggregation, it is a success.2) 内容管理和聚合。还记得梅格?瑞恩(Meg Ryan)和汤姆?汉克斯(Tom Hanks)主演的电影《电邮情缘》(You’ve Got Mail)吗?这是一部票房大片,也是浪漫喜剧的巅峰之作。然而,现在再也不可能重拍该片了。为什么?因为没人会为收到邮件而激动不已了!我们早已经从信息饥渴社会过渡到了信息过量社会。然而,我们仍然每天都需要信息——比以往任何时候都要多。因此,我们看到了诸如Pinterest、Quora和List.ly等网站的兴起。Pinterest从技术上来说不过是将早已存在的图像组织起来而已,但是由于我们非常需要这种聚合系统,它获得了巨大成功。3) Video Device Agnostic. When was the last time you uttered the phrase “I am watching on television.” Chances are you may watch a on TV, but you may just as easily be watching it on your tablet or smart phone. Video continues to become device agnostic. (Much to my chagrin, my husband takes advantage of this fact by pausing the episode on TV only to continue it on his tablet at the restaurant. I’ll save the net etiquette for spouses article for later.) From a business standpoint, online will continue to play a bigger role in the digital space.3) 视频设备不可知。你上一次说“我在电视上看视频”是什么时候?更可能的是,你会在电视上看视频,但你也可以很方便地在平板电脑或智能手机上看视屏。视频持续着其设备不可知的特性。(令我懊恼的是,我丈夫利用了这一事实,他会给电视上播放的剧集按下暂停键,为的是稍后在餐厅用平板电脑接着看。有关夫妇间网络礼仪的事宜,我稍后另外撰文详述吧。)从商业角度来说,在线视频将继续在数字世界中扮演更为重要的角色。4) The 4 Screen Revolution. The last Super Bowl showcased this trend better than any other event. While people watched the game on TV, they were checking their work email on the computer for the next day, tweeting about the game on their tablet, and texting their friends at the same time. The number of screens we are used to will only increase with time. When I say screen, I don’t necessarily mean a solid box. Google glass would also qualify as a screen. Any surface (tangible or not) which you interact with can be considered a screen. Look for advertising to innovate as the available surfaces, on which to interact, increase.4)四屏革命。最近一次的超级碗比其他任何活动都要更好地表明了这一趋势。当人们在电视上观看比赛时,他们同时还在电脑上查看第二天的工作邮件、用平板电脑发与比赛相关的推文,同时还在给朋友发短信。我们所能习惯的屏幕数量只会随着时间的推移而增加。我所说的“屏幕”并不一定就是指实实在在的方盒子。谷歌眼镜也能算是一块屏幕。你能与之进行互动的任何表面(有形的或是无形的)都可以视作是屏幕。随着各种可进行互动的表面种类的增加,期待广告界推出各种创新吧!5) Social Literacy Skills Required. Social media literacy will be required by companies for most jobs, but especially for the C-Suite. It expands beyond understanding social platforms to making the digital landscape an inherent part of your professional repertoire. As a skill set, social media literacy will be divided into two areas – personal and organizational. On the personal level, professionals will have to know how to create content, curate relevant information, and connect people and resources. On an organizational level, agility (in thought and strategy), the ability to aggregate multiple points of data for decision making, and authenticity (the real deal, not the perception) will be required.5)社交网络能力是必备。公司的大部分招聘职位将要求应聘者拥有社交媒体能力,对高管职位来说尤其如此。这一能力不仅仅是要能理解社交平台,以使数字能力成为你职业素养中一个固有的部分。社交媒体能力作为一整套技能,将被划分成两个层面——个人及组织。在个人层面上,专业人士必须要知道如何创建内容、管理相关信息,并将人和资源联系在一起。在组织层面上,则要求有灵活性(在思维和战略上)——整合各方数据以用于决策制定的能力——和真实性(实实在在的交易,而不是想法)。As I gaze into my digital crystal ball, one thing is certain. 2014 is sure to be an exciting year on the digital front.当我凝视着我的数字水晶球时,有一件事是肯定的。2014年必将成为数字前沿令人激动的一年。 /201311/266013

  Sovereign wealth funds, led by Norway’s 0bn oil fund, are using Hong Kong’s listings revival to achieve a long-held goal of ramping up exposure to China.以挪威8100亿美元石油基金为首的数家主权财富基金,正利用香港IPO市场的复苏,加大对华投资。The Norwegian fund – the world’s biggest pool of sovereign wealth – has emerged as one of the most important investors in Chinese companies this year, despite trade friction between Oslo and Beijing.这家挪威基金是世界上规模最大的主权财富基金。尽管挪威与中国之间存在贸易擦,该主权财富基金仍成为今年中资企业最重要的投资者之一。It was one of the main cornerstone investors ahead of the initial public offering of Cinda , the Chinese former bad bank set up to manage distressed debt in the late 1990s.该基金是即将上市的信达资产管理公司(Cinda)的主要基石投资者之一。信达是上世纪90年代末中国为管理不良贷款而设立的一家坏账。The fund has bought 0m, or about 6 per cent, of the .5bn deal. Shares in Cinda are due to begin trading tomorrow, one of a spate of deals that followed Beijing’s announcement of a major package of economic reforms last month.信达上市融资规模为25亿美元,挪威石油基金出资1.5亿美元购入了6%左右的股份。信达股票将于明天上市交易,这是中国政府上个月公布一揽子经济改革措施以来的一系列上市交易之一。The oil fund was also a cornerstone investor in Huishan Dairy’s .3bn Hong Kong offering in November, and in the .3bn Singapore listing of Mapletree’s China real estate trust earlier this year.挪威石油基金还作为基石投资者参与了多宗上市交易,其中包括辉山乳业(Huishan Dairy)今年11月在香港的13亿美元IPO,以及今年早些时候丰树(Mapletree)旗下中国房地产信托基金在新加坡的13亿美元IPO。Norway has also become a key international player in China’s onshore markets. In September, the oil fund became only the second institution to be granted an investment a of more than bn, which it needs to buy renminbi-denominated assets within China itself. Only the Hong Kong Monetary Authority and Temasek, Singapore’s state investment agency, have been granted such access.在中国境内市场上,挪威石油基金也是重要的国际投资方之一。今年9月份,挪威石油基金成为第二个在华获批投资额度超过10亿美元的机构。要想在中国买入以人民币计价的资产,外国机构必须首先获得投资额度。目前,只有香港金管局(HKMA)和新加坡政府投资机构淡马锡(Temasek)获得的额度能与其相当。At the end of September, the oil fund had 2.1 per cent of its 0bn equities portfolio in China, up from 1.7 per cent a year earlier, but only one-third of its exposure to Japan, France or Germany and a 15th the level of its US holdings. Yngve Slyngstad, its chief executive, has repeatedly said he would like to invest more given the size of the Chinese economy.今年9月底,挪威石油基金4800亿美元的股权投资组合中,2.1%投往中国,而一年之前这一比例为1.7%。不过,这一比例只是其对日、法、德投资比例的三分之一,对美投资的十五分之一。该基金首席执行官英格维#8226;斯灵斯塔(Yngve Slyngstad)曾反复表示,考虑到中国经济的规模,他很愿意加大对华投资。Despite the increased investment ties, diplomatic relations between Norway and China remain frozen following the decision in 2010 to award the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo to Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo.尽管中国和挪威的投资关系日益密切,两国间的外交关系却仍处于冻结状态。这缘起于2010年,当时挪威政府决定将诺贝尔和平奖(Nobel Peace Prize)颁给中国异见人士刘晓波。“Relations with China are unfortunately [still] at freezing point,” Norway’s new foreign minister, B#248;rge Brende, said last month. “I don’t think we should expect that relations will improve in the short term but I hope they will during the next four years.”挪威新任外交大臣尔格#8226;布伦德(B#248;rge Brende)上个月曾表示:“不幸的是,挪威与中国的关系(仍)处于冰点。我想我们不能指望挪中关系将在短期内得到改善,但我希望未来四年可以。”When asked last year why Norway had been excluded from a new visa-free travel programme, Chinese officials said some countries had been “badly behaved”.去年,在被问到为什么挪威被中国排除于新的过境免签制度之外时,中国官员表示一些国家“行为不端”。The Norwegian fund is not the only government-backed investment vehicle looking to increase its China holdings. Korea’s National Pension Service and Canada’s Caisse de Depot Placement du Quebec both recently received fresh onshore investment allocations, while Qatar applied for bn in a in June.挪威石油基金不是唯一寻求增加对华投资的政府背景投资基金。韩国国民年金管理公团(NPS)以及加拿大魁北克储蓄投资集团(CDPQ)最近都获得了新的中国境内投资配额,而今年6月份卡塔尔则申请了50亿美元的投资额度。But sovereign funds have shied away from recent Chinese bank IPOs amid concern over the outlook for the sector.不过,由于担心中国业的前景,这些主权财富基金都没有投资于近期的中资IPO交易。Global central banks have also been active. Last month South Africa’s central bank followed Australia’s when it signalled moves to invest in Chinese bonds for the first time.全球央行对华投资也十分积极。上个月继澳大利亚央行之后,南非央行表示,将首次投资于中国债券。Chinese authorities are keen to attract sovereign wealth and other long-term investors to its markets, and in the past year they have eased restrictions.中国官方迫切希望吸引主权财富基金和其他长期投资者投资于中国市场,过去一年他们已为此放宽了相应限制。 /201312/268308



  This is Arturo, a polar bear living in South America who has been called the ‘world’s saddest animal’.这只生活在南美洲的北极熊名叫Arturo,它被人们称为“世界上最悲伤的动物”。He sits in a concrete enclosure at Mendoza Zoo in Argentina in temperatures of up to 40C (104F) and is said to have been depressed since his long-term friend Pelusa died two years ago.它居住在阿根廷门多萨动物园里,馆内温度高达40摄氏度。据称,自从它一直以来的好友Pelusa两年前去世后,就一直很抑郁。It is claimed the 29-year-old’s lonely life is causing him to display abnormal behaviour, including tilting his head and showing his teeth while pacing back and forth and rocking from side to side.29年的孤单生活让它出现了一些反常的行为,包括摇头晃脑,露出自己的牙齿,前后不断踱来踱去,或是左右晃来晃去。US singer Cher, 68, said on Twitter: ‘Don’t cry for him, Argentina? No tears of Mrs Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner for tortured polar bear Arturo. Your hands are stained with his blood when he dies.’68岁的美国歌手雪儿在推特上说:“别为它哭泣,阿根廷?你们没有为这只受尽折磨的北极熊Arturo哭泣。当它死亡时,你们的双手将沾满它的鲜血。”Animal rights activists now want Arturo - whose only access to cooling water in his enclosure is said to be a pool just 20in (50cm) deep - moved to another zoo that offers cooler conditions.动物权益保护者现在希望可以将Arturo转移到另一个环境更凉快的动物园里。现在Arturo唯一的降暑方式就是在一个只有50厘米深的池塘里游泳。Mendoza Zoo blocked an effort five months ago to move Assiniboine Park Zoo in Winnipeg, Canada - where a new International Polar Bear Conservation Centre is located, reported the Sunday People.据《周日人民报》报道,门多萨动物园5个月前曾拒绝将Arturo转移至加拿大温尼伯的阿西尼玻公园动物园,该公园动物园内新建了一个国际北极熊保护中心。The zoo did not believe the bear would survive the two-day trip, with director Gustavo Pronotto saying the medical board had made a decision - and officials were keen to ‘avoid a big mistake’.门多萨动物园认为Arturo忍受不了2天的旅程,且动物园主任古斯塔沃·波诺托表示医委会已经做出了决定,官方力求“避免出现重大失误”。Greenpeace had gathered 160,000 signatures in a campaign to transfer Arturo urgently to Canada, which it said has weather that more closely resembles what occurs in his natural habitat.绿色和平组织在一次活动中收集了16万份签名,呼吁立即将Arturo转移到加拿大,他们表示那里的气候更接近北极熊原本居住的自然环境。Argentinian professor Fernanda Arentsen, who teaches at Université de Saint-Boniface in Winnipeg, has written to her government and the Canadian Embassy in Buenos Aires over the issue.在温尼伯圣邦尼菲斯大学学院任教的阿根廷教授费尔南达·阿伦特森已向政府和加拿大驻布宜诺斯艾利斯大使馆写信反映该问题。‘He looks so sad. He looks in pain. You can imagine a polar bear in the desert with a swimming pool 50cm deep. It’s difficult to watch this poor animal suffering and in pain.’“它看上去很伤心,很痛苦。你可以想象得出,一只生活在沙漠中的北极熊只有一个50厘米深的游泳池,它这么受苦,我真的看不下去了。” /201407/312368A city in northern China reversed course twice this week and is now dropping its limits on the purchase of second homes, in a sign of the uncertainties in China#39;s softening property market.中国北方一座城市本周两次修改房地产相关政策,目前正式发文取消了二套住房的限购措施,这一迹象显示出,中国疲软的房地产市场松绑前景仍不明朗。A statement on the website of the city of Hohhot in China#39;s Inner Mongolia region said that authorities there won#39;t demand information on a homebuyer#39;s prior home purchases. The move effectively allows residents to purchase second and subsequent homes, a shift from a previous policy that made it more difficult for them to buy a second home and banned them from buying a third.中国内蒙古自治区呼和浩特市在政府网站上发布通知称,居民购买商品住房时不再要求提供住房套数查询明。此举实际上允许居民购买二套或多套住房,从而取消了之前居民难以购买二套房并被禁止购买二套以上住房的限购措施。The statement--dated Thursday--echoed one that the city issued last week then rescinded shortly after, according to local media. The Friday statement from Hohhot#39;s Property Development Supervisory and Management Department was headlined #39;Clarification.#39;据当地媒体表示,这份落款日期为周四的通知是对上周该市发布的一份文件所作的更正,那份文件在发出后不久就被撤下。呼和浩特房地产开发监督管理处(Property Development Supervisory and Management Department)周五发布这份通知的标题是“更正声明”。Hohhot is the first Chinese city to issue a written statement to announce a reversal of the administrative curbs, though it isn#39;t clear whether other cities would follow suit. Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia region, is a modest-size city by Chinese standards, with a population of 2.8 million people.呼和浩特市是中国首个发布书面文件宣布取消限购措施的城市,不过尚不清楚其他城市是否会效仿。呼和浩特市是内蒙古自治区的首府,按中国的标准是一座中型城市,人口为280万。The about-face reflects uncertainty among Chinese cities about whether and how much to loosen property-market curbs enacted under pressure from China#39;s central government. Other cities have attempted to ease curbs only to retreat days later.呼和浩特市这一政策的反复显示出,中国各城市在是否及如何放松房地产市场调控措施方面存在不确定性。这些调控政策是在中央政府的压力下实施的。其他一些中国城市此前也曾试图放松楼市调控政策,但都在数日之后恢复了相关调控政策。Since 2011, Hohhot, along with more than 40 Chinese cities, had implemented restrictions on the number of homes people could buy, as part of the central government#39;s campaign to rein in speculative purchases that were pushing home prices out of reach for ordinary Chinese people.自2011年以来,包括呼和浩特在内的40多个中国城市都实施了住房限购政策,这些政策是中央政府抑制楼市投机炒作方案的一部分,此类投机行为已将中国的房价推高至普通中国民众无力购买的价位。But the housing market in many cities outside Beijing and Shanghai are now beleaguered with an excessive supply of apartments. Developers looking clear inventory have started to cut prices. Home buyers, wary of further price cuts, have stayed on the sidelines.但除北京和上海外,中国许多城市的住宅市场现在正面临供应过剩的困境。为消化库存,一些开发商已开始降价促销。而出于未来可能会进一步降价的考虑,购房者则持观望态度。Housing sales in the first five months this year fell 10.2% to 1.97 trillion yuan (6 billion), compared with the same period a year earlier. Average home prices in China also recorded a decline in May from April, the first month-over-month fall in two years.今年前五个月,中国的住宅销售金额较2013年同期下降10.2%,至人民币1.97万亿元。5月份的平均住宅价格也较4月份出现下跌,这是两年来首次出现环比下跌。This year, central government officials have said that they are giving local governments more autonomy to make changes to their own property measures according to the local conditions. But local governments have been uncertain about how far they can go to loosen the shackles of property curbs, and have tiptoed around the question of loosening.中央政府官员今年已表示,将给予地方政府更多自主权,根据本地情况调整当地房地产市场相关措施。但在房地产调控政策能够放松多少的问题上,地方政府却没有把握,因此在放松调控的问题上非常谨慎。 /201407/308995

  2014 has been a year to forget for casino operators in Macau. Unfortunately, things are unlikely to get any better next year.2014年想必已成了运营商希望忘记的一年。不幸的是,明年的情况也不太可能得到好转。Gaming revenue in the former Portuguese colony will contract 1 per cent next year as the ongoing crackdown on corruption in mainland China continues to keep big spending Chinese gamblers away, according to a fresh report from rating agency Fitch. The forecast, Fitch says, reflects #39;the persistent weakness in the VIP business, which seems to be spilling over to the premium mass segment#39;.根据国际评级机构惠誉(Fitch)的新报告,随着中国内地反腐斗争继续令出手阔绰的内地赌客远离,预计明年业收入将缩减1%。惠誉称,VIP业务持续疲软,而这种疲软似乎正在向大众市场中的高端板块扩散。Gaming revenue growth is expected to be flat this year following five straight months of year-on-year declines.在收入连续5个月出现同比下滑的情况下,今年营收预计将与上年持平。Revenues may record annual declines of 15 per cent to 20 per cent in the first quarter and a further 5 per cent drop in the second quarter before beginning to recover in the second half.收入在第一季度同比降幅可能会达到15%至20%,第二季度进一步下滑5%,直到下半年开始恢复增长。Some casino operators - such as Wynn Resorts and Las Vegas Sands - have sought to take some of the sting from the retreat of high-spending VIP ;whales; by focusing on mass market gamers.一些运营商,如度假村(Wynn Resorts)和金沙集团(Las Vegas Sands),力求通过把业务重点放在吸引大众市场赌客,来减轻VIP大客户离场带来的冲击。However, Fitch reckons the problems affecting VIP traffic in Macau - corruption crackdown, slower economic growth in China and the rise of the Philippines as a rival gambling mecca - are going to weigh on the mass segment of the market as well.尽管如此,惠誉认为,影响VIP客流量的因素,如反腐运动、中国经济放缓以及菲律宾作为另一胜地的崛起,同样会对大众市场业务构成压力。Still, the longer-term outloook is not all gloom for Macau, according to Fitch, which argues that: #39;Despite revisions, we do remain favorable on Macau, as we continue to hold that Macau and the greater China market remain underpenetrated. We expect gaming revenue growth will be driven by new supply and infrastructure development and that the Chinese economy will continue to grow (6.8% in 2015 and 6.5% in 2016), anchoring mass market demand.#39;不过,惠誉认为,业的较长期前景并非完全暗淡无光。该机构指出:“尽管做出了修订,我们还是认为和大中华区市场没有饱和,因此仍然看好。我们预计,新的供应、基础设施建设、以及继续增长的中国经济(2015年的6.8%和2016年的6.5%)将撑大众市场的需求,进而推动收入增长。” /201411/343595The economic indicators that surround us are familiar, as are the criticisms they attract. The consumer prices index doesn’t fully capture the boon of new products; unemployment figures do not count workers who have given up the job hunt in despair; gross domestic product (GDP) includes bad things if they have a market price, and excludes good things if they don’t.我们熟悉身边的种种经济指标,也熟悉它们所招致的各种批评。居民消费价格指数(CPI)并不能完全反映新产品带来的好处;失业率数据并不统计那些因绝望已放弃找工作的人;国内生产总值(GDP)会包括那些有市场价的糟糕事物,而不包括那些没有市场价的好东西。But there is one fundamental flaw in all these statistics that is rarely discussed: they are almost always applied to countries. It is not impossible to find educated guesses about the GDP of Cambridge, or the inflation rate in Mumbai, and there is nothing conceptually troubling about trying to calculate either. Yet most economic statistics describe the nation state.不过,在所有这些统计过程中,有一个根本缺陷我们很少讨论到:所有这些指标几乎总是只适用于国家。对剑桥市的GDP或孟买的通胀率进行有根据的猜测并非不可能,试图计算这两项数据在理念上也没有任何问题。然而,多数经济统计数据描述的却是整个国家。This is odd, because the nation state is a political unit, not an economic one. Policy does influence the economy, of course — national authorities can impose a common interest rate, tax rates and regulations. But, as the unorthodox thinker and writer Jane Jacobs used to argue, the natural unit of macroeconomic analysis is not a nation state at all. It is a city and its surrounding region.这一点很奇怪,因为国家是个政治单位,不是经济单位。当然,政策确实会影响经济——国家当局能够实施统一的利率、税率和监管规定。然而,正如非正统思想家和作家简雅各布斯(Jane Jacobs)过去一直主张的,宏观经济分析的天然单位绝不是整个国家,而是一座城市及其周边地区。Aberdeen, Cardiff, Glasgow and Manchester are subject to some similarities by virtue of their shared participation in something we call “the British economy” but economically they are quite different. Their relative fortunes fluctuate because they are pushed and pulled by different forces.由于都参与了所谓的“英国经济”,阿伯丁、卡迪夫、格拉斯哥和曼彻斯特存在一些共同之处。然而,从经济角度而言它们非常不同。它们的相对财富状况会上下波动,因为它们被不同的因素推动向前和拖后腿。In her book Cities and the Wealth of Nations , Jacobs zooms in still further, looking at “Shinohata”, a pseudonymous Japanese hamlet a hundred miles north-west of Tokyo. (She relies on a rich description of Shinohata by sociologist Ronald Dore.) Shinohata was initially a subsistence economy, supplemented by woodland foraging and a little silk farming. In the 20th century, the villagers gained some time thanks to improved agricultural techniques, and they used it to produce more silk cocoons. After the war, Tokyo’s expansion pulled Shinohata into its economic orbit. The booming Japanese capital became a market for Shinohata’s fresh fruit and wild oak mushrooms; Tokyo’s government paid for bridges and roads; its capitalists built a factory; its labour market lured young men and women from their village existence. The tale is intricate and unpredictable; Japan’s economic miracle, as recorded in the national statistics, was actually the sum of countless unrecorded stories of local development.在雅各布斯的《城市与国家财富》(Cities and the Wealth of Nations)一书中,她的视线进一步拉近,落在了位于东京西北一百英里一个化名“蓧原”(Shinohata)的日本小村庄。(她的书依赖于社会学家罗纳德多尔(Ronald Dore)对蓧原的详细描述。)起初,蓧原的经济为自给自足型,以森林里的采集活动以及少量养蚕为补充。20世纪,由于农业技术的提高,村民们有了一定的富余时间,他们用这些时间生产更多蚕茧。战后,东京的扩张将蓧原拉入了它的经济轨道。急速发展的日本首都为蓧原的新鲜水果和野生香菇提供了市场;东京政府出资修建了桥梁和道路;东京的资本家则开办了工厂;东京的就业市场吸引青年男女摆脱农村生活方式。整个故事错综复杂而又不可预测;而以国家为单位的统计数据所记录到的日本经济奇迹,实际上是无数个没有记录下来的地方发展故事的总和。Jacobs is not the only person to argue that economic development may be profitably studied through a magnifying glass. A new research paper from three development economists, William Easterly, Laura Freschi and Steven Pennings, offers “A Long History of a Short Block” — a Shinohata-style tale of the economic development of a single 486ft block of Greene Street, between Houston and Prince Street in downtown Manhattan.认为通过观察经济局部的细微之处来研究经济发展或能取得丰硕成果的不只是雅各布斯一个人。三名发展经济学家威廉伊斯特利(William Easterly)、劳拉弗雷斯基(Laura Freschi)和史蒂文洠腟斯(Steven Pennings),在新发表的一篇研究论文中,展示了“一个小街区的漫长历史”(A Long History of a Short Block),即关于一个486英尺长的街区的蓧原式故事。该街区位于格林尼街上,在曼哈顿下城的休斯顿街和王子街之间。Easterly, a former World Bank researcher, is well known in development circles for his scepticism about how much development can ever be planned, and how much credit political leaders and their expert advisers deserve when things go well.在发展经济学圈内,曾在世行(WB)任研究员的伊斯特利以对两个问题的质疑而闻名,一个是人们能在多大程度上“规划”发展,另一个是良好的发展应在多大程度上归功于政界领袖及其专家顾问。“Here’s a block where there is no leader; there’s no president or prime minister of this block,” he explained to me. Greene Street, he suggests, offers us a perspective on the more spontaneous, decentralised features of economic development.他向我解释说:“这是个没有领导的街区。它没有总统或总理。”他认为,格林尼街为我们提供了一个视角,从它身上可以观察到经济发展更具自发性和分散性的一些特点。Greene Street’s history certainly offers plenty of rapid and surprising changes to observe. The Dutch, who had colonised Manhattan in 1624, decided in 1667 to cede what is now New York to the British, in exchange for guarantees over their possession of what is now Suriname in Latin America. The Dutch thought sugar-rich Suriname was a better bet but New York City’s economy is now more than a hundred times larger than Suriname’s.格林尼街的历史确实提供了足够多迅速而令人吃惊的变化,可供人们观察。1624年殖民了曼哈顿的荷兰人,在1667年决定,将如今的纽约出让给英国,以换取后者保让他们占有现在的拉美苏里南地区。荷兰人当时认为,盛产蔗糖的苏里南发展前景更好。然而,如今纽约的经济规模是苏里南的百倍以上。In 1850, Greene Street was a prosperous residential district with several households who would be multimillionaires in today’s terms. Two large hotels and a theatre opened nearby, and prostitutes started to move in. By 1870, the middle classes had fled and the block was at the heart of one of New York City’s largest sex-work districts.1850年,格林尼街是一个富人区,当时居住在那里的几户人家相当于今天的百万富翁。后来,附近开了两家大酒店和一家剧院,开始迁入这个街区。到1870年,中产阶级已逃离这个街区,该街区也成为纽约最大性交易区的核心地带。In the late 19th century, perhaps because property values in the red-light area were low, entrepreneurs swooped in to build large cast-iron stores and warehouses for the garment trade. Greene Street’s fortunes waned when the industry moved uptown after 1910, and property values collapsed. In the 1940s and 1950s, urban planners suggested bulldozing the lot and starting again but a community campaign — famously involving Jacobs herself — fought them off. Property values were revived as artists colonised Greene Street in the 1950s and 1960s, attracted by the large, airy and cheap spaces. None of these changes could easily have been predicted; some are rather mysterious even in retrospect.到了19世纪末,也许是因为红灯区房价低,众多企业家涌入该街区,盖起了一些铸铁结构的大型商店和仓库,从事装生意。1910年后,随着该产业迁往上城,格林尼街的命运转衰,房价一落千丈。上世纪四五十年代,城市规划机构曾建议将该街区推平,然后重新开发,然而一场社区运动阻止了他们这样做——众所周知,雅各布斯本人就参与了这场运动。上世纪五六十年代,诸多艺术家被格林尼街空旷、通风而廉价的空间吸引而迁入,这里的房价复苏了。所有这些变化都无法轻易地预测到。即便是回过头来看,有些变化当初为何会发生也是个迷。The lessons of Greene Street? Getting the basic infrastructure right — streets, water, sanitation, policing — is a good idea. Aggressive planning, knocking down entire blocks in response to temporary weakness, is probably not. Predicting the process of economic development at a local level is a game for suckers. Most importantly, even a tremendous development success — the ed States and, within it, New York City — is going to show some deep wrinkles to those who get in close.格林尼街告诉了我们什么呢?建好基本的基础设施——街道、供水、卫生系统、治安体系——是个不错的主意。而在街区暂时发展得不好时,采取激进的规划、夷平整个街区,则很可能不是个好主意。只有傻子才会去预测某个地方的经济发展进程。最重要的一点是,近距离观察下,即使是发展奇迹的典范(比如美国以及美国的纽约市),也会显露出一些深深的皱纹。 /201510/403306


  On the annual occasion in China for recognizing teachers’ contributions to society, a group of professors and students have called on Chinese education officials and university administrators to take more vigorous action against sexual harassment on university campuses.在中国每年一度表彰教师社会贡献的特殊时刻,一群高校师生呼吁中国的教育官员和大学管理者,为防止校园性骚扰事件的发生采取更有力的行动。On Tuesday, the day before Teachers’ Day, the 256 professors and students signed open letters addressed to China’s Ministry of Education as well as to Zhu Chongshi, the president of Xiamen University.周二,也就是教师节的前一天,256名高校师生分别签署了致中国教育部以及厦门大学校长朱崇实的公开信。In the letter addressed to Mr. Zhu, the group called on him to make public the findings of an investigation into a sexual harassment case that came to light in June involving a history professor who was accused of luring female students into having sex with him. After the allegations surfaced, the university suspended the professor, Wu Chunming, and announced that it had set up a special team to investigate the case.在给朱崇实的信中,他们呼吁公布今年6月曝光的一桩性骚扰案的调查结果。该案涉及一名被指诱奸女学生的历史系教授。在指控浮出水面之后,学校中止了涉事教授吴春明的工作职责,并宣布已成立专门小组调查此案。But after three months, the university has yet to announce the results of that investigation.但三个月过去了,厦门大学仍未宣布调查结果。“We hope that Xiamen University will deliver a just and fair conclusion for the involved parties and the public,” says the letter, which was made available to The New York Times. “But we also learned that before the media got involved in the Wu Chunming case, a number of people had aly filed complaints about Wu, but the complaints were not taken seriously or properly investigated.”“我们期待厦门大学能给当事人和公众一个公正、公平的结论,”这封《纽约时报》所见的信中写道,“不过我们也获知,在媒体介入之前,吴案中的一些当事人早就已经通过组织途径进行了投诉,但却并未得到足够重视与相应调查处理。”“The reason,” continues the letter, which includes some signatures from Chinese studying or working abroad, “is because the colleges and universities in mainland China do not have established anti-sexual harassment mechanisms.”“究其原因,”信中接着说,“在于我国大陆地区高校并未建立反性骚扰机制。”Included in the letter to the Education Ministry was a proposed set of guidelines for establishing nationwide regulations to prevent and respond to sexual harassment on university campuses.给教育部的信中还包含了一份高等教育学校性骚扰防治管理办法的建议稿。While the focus of the letters is on the Wu Chunming case, organizers say they see the case as an opportunity to effect change nationwide.尽管这两封信的关注焦点是吴春明案,发起人说,他们将此案看做在全国范围内促成改变的契机。“The main thing is that we don’t think this is an individual case,” said Luo Ruixue of the Women Awakening Network, a Guangzhou-based women’s rights group that helped organize the letter to the ministry and Xiamen University. “What we really need is a system in place at universities to deal with these kinds of situations.”“主要是,我们不认为这是个案。”新媒体女性网络的罗瑞雪说。这家位于广州的女权组织参与发起了致教育部和厦门大学的这两封公开信。“我们真正需要的,是在高校建立起处理类似情况的制度。”“We hope that Xiamen University can set an example by creating this kind of a system,” Ms. Luo said in a telephone interview.“我们希望厦门大学可以建立起这样的机制,成为全国的典范,”罗瑞雪在电话采访中说。One of the signatories to the letter was a woman who recently completed a master’s degree at Xiamen University.联名信的签署人中包括一名刚刚从厦门大学获得硕士学位的女生。On Wednesday morning, the woman, who uses the pseudonym Xiao Wu to protect her privacy, took part in another, separately organized activity, intended to raise awareness about sexual harassment on campus. In photos circulated on Sina Weibo, Xiao Wu and nine other female students can be seen standing at the entrance of their respective universities, dressed in identical Little Red Riding Hood costumes and carrying swords and shields inscribed with the characters: “Give female students back our freedom and our nights.”周三上午,她参加了另一个旨在提高对校园性骚扰案关注的活动。为了保护个人隐私,她化名为“小五”。新浪微上传播的照片显示,小五和另外九名女生站在各自的学校门口,穿着相同的小红帽装,手里举着剑和盾牌,盾牌上写着:“把自由和夜晚还给女生。”“The traditional understanding is that Little Red Riding Hood was eaten by the Big Bad Wolf because she was not careful, so the moral of the story is often said to be to stay at home and not go anywhere,” said Xiao Wu by telephone from Xiamen. “Every time something happens or a sexual harassment case comes up, there are always voices that come out and say that the female students involved were not careful enough, were not aware enough of their safety.”“传统的理解是,小红帽被大灰狼吃了,是因为她缺乏警惕,所以人们认为,这个故事告诉我们,要待在家里,哪也别去,”小五在厦门通过电话表示。“每次某些事件或性侵案发生时,总是有人说,是因为女学生缺乏警惕,安全意识不够。”“By choosing Little Red Riding Hood and by holding those shields and swords, we are trying to make a statement to say that we aren’t going to be those people who only stay at home and don’t go anywhere.”“我们选择装扮成小红帽,手举剑和盾牌,是想说,我们不打算成为只待在家里,哪儿也不去的人。”In addition to the photos, which were taken at 10 different universities, including Xiamen University, Beijing Foreign Studies University and Fudan University in Shanghai, the Little Red Riding Hood organizers also sent letters to the presidents of 116 of China’s top universities, calling for them to establish systems to prevent sexual harassment.这些照片拍摄于10所不同的大学,包括厦门大学、北京外国语大学和上海复旦大学。除了这些照片,“小红帽”活动的组织者还向中国116所重点大学的校长寄出了公开信,呼吁建立性骚扰防范机制。“The school should be a safe environment,” Xiao Wu said. “Why can men go out but women can’t go out? I think this is very unfair. So we want to hit back against the Big Bad Wolf.”“学校应该是一个安全的地方,”小五说,“为什么男生可以出去,而女生却不能?我认为这很不公平。所以我们想要赶走大灰狼。” /201409/328362。


  An archipelago known for its Buddhist temples, the Tibetan capital and a seaside city known for corrupt real estate deals, are the only three cities in China to meet national air quality standards, in a stark illustration of how pervasive pollution has become in the world’s most populous country.中国只有三个城市达到国家空气质量标准,一个是以佛教寺庙出名的群岛城市舟山,一个是西藏省会拉萨,还有一个是以房地产腐败窝案闻名的滨海城市海口,凸显了世界人口第一大国污染现象有多普遍。Unrelenting smog – including a week-long stretch last month of “hazardous” air in Beijing – has become a focus for public discontent, particularly in prosperous urban areas. Last week, Li Keqiang, China’s premier, told the annual meeting of the country’s legislature that his government would wage “war on pollution”.弥漫不散的雾霾已成了引发群众不满的一大问题,尤其是在城市居民中间。上个月,北京曾连续一周被笼罩在“有害”雾霾之下。中国总理李克强上周在人大会议上表示,中国政府将“向污染宣战”。Haikou, the capital of sub-tropical Hainan Island, Zhoushan – an archipelago just south of Shanghai that consists of 1,390 islands and 1.1 million people – and Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, were the only three to meet national standards in a survey of 74 of the nation’s largest cities, vice-minister of environmental protection Wu Shaoqing told journalists at the wekend.环境保护部副部长吴晓青在周末的记者会上说,去年全国实施新空气质量标准的74个城市中,仅有拉萨、海口、舟山三个城市完全达标。拉萨是西藏省会,海口是海南岛省会,处于亚热带地区,舟山在上海以南,由1390座岛屿组成,有110万人口。Of the 10 worst cities, seven were in Hebei, the industrial province that rings Beijing where winter pollution levels regularly go off the scale.而在空气质量相对较差的前10个城市中,有7个在河北省,河北是将北京环抱在内的工业大省,冬季污染指数频频爆表。Last year, China issued a plan to cut emissions and polluting steel capacity in the populous east – particularly in Hebei – while encouraging more coal and industrial development in the poor and arid west of the country.去年中国公布了一项计划,决定在人口密集的东部地区(尤其是河北)减少污染物排放,压减钢铁产能,同时鼓励煤矿和工业向西部贫瘠落后地区发展。Hebei officials have hastened to demonstrate their commitment by inviting state television to film the detonation of steel mills and cement plants. But steel industry officials say most of these blown up were aly closed due to high debt levels and poor profitability, throwing doubt over any long-term impact on pollution levels.河北省官员为表明决心,匆忙邀请国家电视台拍摄了他们引爆钢厂和水泥厂的场景。但据钢铁业官员表示,多数被爆破的工厂早已由于债务沉重、效益差而倒闭,令人质疑这种举动对降低污染水平是否有长远作用。Sixteen of Hebei’s 148 steel plants have closed for economic reasons, provincial governor Zhang Qingwei said on Friday, allowing Hebei to meet its closure targets sooner than required. Mr Li said in his address to the legislature that the national target of shuttering 60m tonnes of steel capacity by 2017 would be met one year earlier than originally planned.河北省省长张庆伟在上周五表示,河北省有148座钢厂,其中16座已因经济原因关闭,河北省能够提早达到关停目标。到2017年,河北将压减6000万吨钢铁产能。李克强在人大会议作政府工作报告时表示,将确保提前一年完成淘汰落后产能的任务。The central government has attempted for many years to regulate pollution and industrial overcapacity by mandating shutdowns, an approach that tends to backfire as industrial bosses frantically expand to create plants too big to fail.中央政府多年来试图通过行政命令,强制企业关停工厂,以控制污染和工业产能过剩问题,但结果往往适得其反,企业主们为防止工厂因规模小被关闭,疯狂地扩建工厂。An environmental tax could be considered at the annual session of the legislature, under way this week. Changes to China’s 1989 environmental protection law are undergoing a third round of revisions, Mr Wu said: “We believe the biggest part to be revised is how to fix the problem that the cost of polluting is low while the cost of mitigating it is high.”本周人大会议可能考虑立法开征环境税。中国正在对1989年环境保护法进行第三轮修改,吴晓青说:“这次修改的亮点,就是解决违法成本低、守法成本高问题。”For many Chinese cities, part of the problem is that local polluters are often the biggest taxpayers and employers, or have tight ties to local governments. Most of the 10 best cities cited by Mr Wu are on the coast, where sea breezes clear the air.中国许多城市面临的一个问题是,污染排放企业通常是当地纳税和就业大户,或是与地方政府有紧密联系的企业。吴晓青所说的10个空气质量相对较好的城市大多在沿海地区,海风能净化空气。 /201403/279305

  It#39;s a nightly dilemma in many households: A student hits a wall doing homework, and parents are too tired, too busy -- or too mystified -- to help. 许多家庭每天晚上都会遭遇这样的困境:孩子做作业时有道题不会,这时家长要么太累,要么太忙──要么也不会──总之帮不上忙。Ordering up a tutor is becoming as easy for kids as grabbing a late-night snack. Amid rapid growth in companies offering online, on-demand tutoring, students can use a credit card to connect, sometimes in less than a minute, with a live tutor. Such 24/7, no-appointment-needed services can be especially helpful to students with tight budgets or tight time frames or those in remote areas. 而如今对孩子们来说,在线订购辅导务正变得和拿点儿零食当宵夜一样容易。随着越来越多的公司提供按需定制的在线辅导,学生们用一张信用卡便可快速地接通一位在线家教,有时1分钟都不到就能连上。这类务每周每天不间断运营,且无需进行预约,尤其对手头紧、时间急、住得远的学生来说很有帮助。#39;All of a sudden, the world opens up to them,#39; says Michael Horn, executive director of education for the Clayton Christensen Institute, a San Mateo, Calif., education and health-care think tank. 加州圣马特奥教育健康智囊团Clayton Christensen Institute的执行董事迈克尔·霍恩(Michael Horn)如此评价:一瞬间,知识的海洋就向他们敞开了怀抱。That said, the quality of on-demand scholastic support can be uneven, and the catch-as-catch-can approach to enlisting a tutor may not be best for struggling students who need sustained help. Sessions can bog down on technical glitches, and language barriers can cause problems on sites that rely on tutors from abroad. 话虽如此,这类按需定制的教学持的质量却可能参差不齐,而且这些网站“招到一个是一个”的招聘老师的方式,对于需要长期辅导的学生来说也谈不上有多好。辅导课程还会因技术故障而中断,而在那些提供外教网站上,语言沟通方面的障碍也是一个问题。Prices, ranging from about to an hour (and often prorated to the minute), are cheaper than what many skilled tutors charge in a student#39;s home. And parents and students say the quick homework fix can ease stress and make evenings at home more peaceful. 这类务的价格在每小时24美元到45美元之间(并通常按分钟计价),和许多有经验的上门家教相比要便宜。家长和学生也反映说,这种快速帮忙解题的务减轻了不少压力,让晚上家里的氛围融洽多了。Whenever Peggy Bennett of Dallas tried to help her 13-year-old daughter, Chloe Friedman, with her eighth-grade physics and algebra homework, #39;we#39;d always end up bickering,#39; Ms. Bennett says, with Chloe often objecting that the teacher did it differently. #39;It was a lose-lose situation.#39; 每当达拉斯的佩姬·本内特(Peggy Bennett)要帮她13岁的女儿克洛艾·弗里德曼(Chloe Friedman)做八年级物理和代数作业,到了最后俩人都会吵起来,克洛艾每次都说那不是老师讲的解法。本内特称这是个双输的局面。Chloe says she was skeptical when her mom helped her sign up last month on Tutor.com, a New York City-based provider of on-demand tutoring. But after she logged on one evening for algebra help, a tutor, identified only by a first name and last initial, responded within a minute. Chloe says she was guided to figure out the answers, using text chat and an interactive #39;whiteboard#39; that displayed their writing and calculations on a shared screen. After hearing nothing but typing for about 10 minutes, Ms. Bennett says she heard Chloe yell from the other room, #39;They told me I did a good job!#39; Ms. Bennett adds, #39;That was all that she needed.#39; 克洛艾说,一开始当她妈妈帮她在Tutor.com──一个纽约市的定制辅导网站上注册帐户的时候,她很怀疑这个网站能否帮上忙。但有一天晚上,她登上网站寻求一道代数题的解法,一个标注了姓氏缩写和名字的辅导老师不到一分钟就回覆了她。克洛艾说,她使用文本交谈,并在一块共享屏幕的白色书写板上写出运算过程,通过这种方式,她在指导下解出了。本内特说,只听敲击键盘的声音持续了十多分钟,接着克洛艾的房间里便传来一声欢呼:他们说我做对了!本内特补充道,这正是我女儿所需要的。Chloe, who takes classes in dance, acting and singing, also uses Tutor.com on her smartphone at the dance studio between classes. She says she recently got help solving a math problem in less than 10 minutes. 克洛艾还学习舞蹈、表演和唱歌,课间休息时,她会在舞蹈教室里用手机登陆Tutor.com。她说她最近在网站的帮助下,不用十分钟就解出了一道数学题。Ms. Bennett now lets Chloe use her credit card to extend her Tutor.com subscription whenever she needs help. So far, Chloe has spent .99 for up to two hours of tutoring. Tutor.com subscribers pay once a month for time used; unused minutes can be carried to the next month. 本内特已让克洛艾用信用卡延长了她在Tutor.com的订制时间。目前,克洛艾已花费79.99美元购买了两个小时的辅导时间;未用尽的时间可推到下个月继续使用。Most sites enlist moonlighting or retired teachers, college professors or professionals with tutoring experience; most offer scheduled tutoring in addition to on-demand sessions. The most common users are middle- and high-schoolers, and college students taking basic courses. 多数网站都招聘兼职在校教师、退休教师、大学教授或者有家教经验的专业人士;除了按需定制的辅导之外,大多数网站还会按日程表提供家教课程。最主要的用户群为初、高中生以及接受基础课程的大学生。About 95% of the 1,200 tutors available on Bangalore, India-based TutorVista are recruited from India, says C.S. Swaminathan, president of TutorVista, which was recently acquired by the London-based publishing and education company Pearson PLC. Tutoring sessions with its mostly U.S.-based customers are usually held via whiteboard and text chat, to reduce potential language difficulties, Mr. Swaminathan says. Still, students say, language barriers can sometimes slow communication, and grammar glitches can occasionally creep in. TutorVista是一家位于印度班加罗尔的在线辅导网站,该公司已被伦敦培生教育出版公司(Pearson PLC.)收购。TutorVista总裁斯瓦米纳坦(C.S. Swaminathan)称其95%的员工招募自印度,而主要客户来自于美国,辅导课程通常会通过白板和文字聊天进行,以试图减少可能存在的语言沟通障碍。然而学生仍称语言障碍有时会使沟通过程变慢,偶尔还会有语法上面的问题。 Saira Sultan, an Irvine, Calif., college student, says the TutorVista tutors she taps several times a week for help with her English and math courses are pleasant and knowledgeable. She recently uploaded a business letter she had been assigned to write for her English class, and the tutor marked errors in the text and texted instructions on correcting verb tenses, rearranging paragraphs and rephrasing sentences to more smoothly, Ms. Sultan says. The one-on-one edits have helped her learn to write more clearly, she says. 来自加州尔湾学院(Irvine College)的学生苏丹·西良(Saira Sultan)说,她每周都向TutorVista的老师请教好几次英语和数学课上的问题,而老师们学而友善。她说,最近她的英语课要求写一封商业信件,她把作业上传到网上,辅导老师会标出错误、纠正动词时态,调整段落格式,并将语句梳理通顺。这种一对一的编辑帮助她的英文写作更加清楚明白。The drawback, she says, is that communicating via text chat #39;takes a lot of time.#39; Mr. Swaminathan says TutorVista can provide audio-chat sessions if scheduled in advance. 她说,缺点是用文本聊天来沟通“很费时间”。斯瓦米纳坦说用户可在TutorVista上预约视频辅导课程。As with in-person tutors, knowledge levels and teaching skills can be uneven. Stephanie Dobbs of Los Angeles says one InstaEDU tutor who responded to her daughter Sarah#39;s request for calculus help #39;didn#39;t know the material at all.#39; But Sarah, who uses the site two to three times a week, says it has so many tutors that switching is easy, and the convenience outweighs any drawbacks. 然而,那些辅导老师的知识水平和教育技能常常良莠不齐。洛杉矶的斯蒂芬妮·多布斯(Stephanie Dobbs)说她女儿萨拉(Sarah)在InstaEDU上找到的微积分家教“根本不了解这块知识”。然而Sarah每周却要上这个网站两三次,她说更换老师很容易,使用这个网站利大于弊。An InstaEDU spokeswoman says on occasion, tutors can halt billing while they figure out the material, or students can be given refunds or a different tutor. 一位InstaEDU的发言人称,辅导老师有时会在审题时暂停计费,或者学生也可以要求退款或更换家教。James Nickerson agrees that on-demand tutors need winnowing. When he turned to InstaEDU recently to help his 16-year-old daughter Emma with an advanced-Latin class (they couldn#39;t find a skilled Latin tutor in their hometown of Stevens Point, Wis.), he didn#39;t turn Emma loose online. Instead, he sat beside her while she chose a tutor, urging her to bypass a math major who claimed a sideline expertise in Latin in favor of a New York University grad student majoring in classics. He also helped her schedule sessions, to provide continuity with the same tutor. 詹姆斯·尼克森(James Nickerson)也认为这些家教需要经过一定的筛选。最近,他登入InstaEDU来帮她16岁的女儿艾玛(Emma)挑选高级拉丁语课程,他没有立刻放手不管,而是坐在一旁陪她一起挑选老师,要她别去选以拉丁文为副业的数学专业毕业生,而是选择纽约大学(New York University)古罗马文学专业的硕士毕业生。他还帮助女儿制定课程表,以便她能一直上同一个老师的课。On-demand tutoring is just one of a growing array of online homework-help options. Khan Academy, one prominent example, offers interactive tutorials in addition to educational s. Chegg.com provides answers to homework questions, while crowdsourcing sites such as StudyBlue enable students to share study guides, notes and flashcards. 按需定制的辅导只不过是正在发展的在线作业辅导产品的一小部分。举个例子,Khan Academy在提供教学视频的同时也提供交互式辅导课程。Chegg.com提供作业,而StudyBlue这样的众包网站则让学生可以分享讲义、笔记和学习卡片。Some school districts pay New York City-based TutaPoint and other online-tutoring sites to provide free access to students; about 2,000 libraries let students use Tutor.com without cost. Free access to tutoring sites can help level the playing field for students from all income groups -- if they provide trained, qualified tutors, conduct background checks and safeguard users#39; security, says Nora Carr, president of the National School Public Relations Association, a professional group. 一些学区向总部位于纽约的TutaPoint和其他在线辅导网站付费用,以便其学生能免费登录这些网站。约2,000家图书馆也供学生免费使用Tutor.com。专业组织全国学校公共关系协会(National School Public Relations Association)的主席诺拉·卡尔(Nora Carr)认为,这些举措可以帮助不同收入阶层的学生享受到更加平等的教育机会──前提是这些网站的辅导老师经过训练、具有职业资格,职业操守经过审查,并且网站能确保用户信息安全。But the sites can also tilt the playing field in favor of kids with plenty of money for tutoring help, creating pressure for other students to have a tutor too. Parents should monitor kids#39; use of the sites and track fees, which #39;can get very expensive very quickly,#39; says Ms. Carr, who is chief of staff of the Guilford County Schools in Greensboro, N.C. 卡尔说,然而富裕家庭的孩子登入网站寻求帮助,也会迫使其他学生寻找辅导老师,进而或也将加剧教育不平等。家长应当监督孩子对这些网站的使用,记录他们出的费用,因为这些网站很贵,费钱速度也很快。卡尔也是格林斯罗市吉尔福德郡学校(Guilford County Schools)的教员主任。 Yamini Naidu says online tutoring last year through InstaEDU helped her earn As in advanced-placement classes at her Beaverton, Ore., high school. Now a freshman at Yale University, Ms. Naidu works eight hours a week as an InstaEDU tutor. 俄勒冈州比佛顿高中(Beaverton High School)毕业生Yamini Naidu说,去年在IstaEDU在线辅导的帮助下,她在大学先修课上拿到了一串A的优异成绩。如今,她已是耶鲁大学(Yale University)的大一新生,并每周花8个小时在InstaEDU上提供在线辅导。She says that students who come to sessions with a list of questions or assignments to work on -- and who block out time to concentrate -- benefit most. Text chats occasionally stall, though, if students are distracted or start multitasking; Ms. Naidu tries to re-engage students by asking questions to spark their interest, she says. 她说,最能从这些课程汲取知识的,是那些带着一串问题和作业题的学生,还有能够专心听课不顾时间的学生。然而如果学生分神或者做起别的事情,那么文字聊天就会拖延时间;她说她试图通过询问学生问题、激发兴趣来让他们重新专注于课程。Bharathy Chummar of Plantation, Fla., turned to the online tutoring site Eduboard last summer to help her 15-year-old son Prajwal research possible science-fair topics. Prajwal had a 45-minute audio and text chat with a tutor, who is also a physician, about an idea involving bacteria. The doctor later sent him a research summary with links to more studies. 去年夏天,佛罗里达州普兰泰申的丘玛尔(Bharathy Chummar)登入了Eduboard在线辅导网站,来帮助她15岁的儿子普拉杰瓦尔(Prajwal)就科学展览会上的主题进行调研。普拉杰瓦尔与一位同为外科医生的兼职家教进行了45分钟的视频课程,并用文字进行对话,探讨了一个有关细菌的想法。之后,这位医生发给了他一份研究综述,内容包含了更多相关研究的链接。Online tutors #39;fill a huge gap that can never be filled by parents,#39; Ms. Chummar says.丘玛尔说,在线家教“担起了一项家长永远无法担当的职能”。 /201404/292063

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